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    廣州學歷招考網 > 復習資料 > 【英語】成人高考專升本知識積累(高升專也可以看)

    【英語】成人高考專升本知識積累(高升專也可以看)

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    作者:廣州學歷招考網    發布時間:2020-10-22 10:43:12    人感興趣

     

    成人高考專升本中,英語是這一科是很多學生害怕考的科目,但是想要拿分也不是很難,小編覺得只要理解了,東西套進去多考幾分都沒問題。要是實在怕考不過開通網課學習,下面小編還給大家分享一些筆記,大家可以收藏起來。同時想要網課輔導的,可以潘加老師(手機/微信號:18922776260)咨詢開通網課學習。


     

          第一節 概 念

      一、開音節

      以發音的元音字母結尾、以“元音字母+不發音的e”結尾、以“一個元音字母+一個輔音字母(r除外)+不發音的e”結尾的音節都叫開音節。

      如:no, be, note.

      ★發音的元音字母:a, e, i, o, u

      二、閉音節

      以“一個元音字母+一個或幾個輔音字母(r除外)”結尾的音節叫閉音節。

      如:map, plan, west.

      三、r音節

      以“元音字母+r”構成的音節叫r音節。

      如:car, doctor, teacher, dirty.

      詞匯與語法

      40個小題,共40分。

      從2002,2003年的考題看,語法占20――25分。

      第一節 名 詞(null)

      大綱要求掌握:

      一、可數名詞與不可數名詞

      二、可數名詞的復數形式

      三、名詞的所有格

      四、名詞在句子中的作用

      一、可數名詞與不可數名詞

      名詞分可數與不可數兩種。

      可數名詞表示某類人或東西中的個體。如table, country.

      或表示若干個體組成的集合體。如 family, people, committee, police.

      不可數名詞表示無法分為個體的實物。如air, tea, furniture, water.

      或表示動作、狀態、品質、感情等抽象概念。如work, information, advice, happiness.

      有些名詞在一種場合下是可數名詞,在另一種場合下是不可數名詞。

      如room 房間(可數),空間(不可數)

      time 時間(不可數),次數(可數)

      fish 魚(不可數),各種各樣的魚(可數)

      比較下列例句:

      There are nine rooms in the house. (房間,可數名詞)

      There isnt enough room for us three in the car . (空間,不可數名詞)

      不可數名詞的數量可以通過在其前面加單位詞來表示。

      如:一塊肉 a piece of meat

      兩條長面包 two loaves of bread

      三件家具 three articles of furniture

      一大筆錢 a large sum of money

      二、可數名詞的復數形式

      可數名詞有單數和復數兩種形式。名詞復數的構成如下:

      1.一般情況下在名詞后加-s.如:girls, books.

      ★濁輔音、元音結尾,s發[z]

      2.以s, x , ch, sh結尾的詞在名詞后加-es.如:glasses, boxes, matches, bushes.

      ★以s, x , ch, sh結尾,es發[iz]

      3.“輔音字母+y”結尾的詞,變y為i再加-es.如:city-cities, country-countries.

      4.以o結尾的詞多數加-es.如:heroes, tomatoes, potatoes.

      radios, zoos, photos, pianos, kilos 例外。

      5.f, fe 結尾的詞,多數變f,fe為v再加-es.如:thief-thieves, leaf-leaves, half-halves, life-lives, wife-wives, knife-knives.

      少數名詞有不規則的復數形式。如:man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, child-children, mouse-mice.

     ★可數名詞復數一般情況下考不規則復數形式。

      個別名詞的單數和復數的形式是一樣的。如Chineses, Japanese, sheep, deer.

      三、名詞的所有格

      名詞的所有格表示所屬關系, 起形容詞的作用。

      當名詞表示有生命的東西時,所有格一般是在詞尾加 s .

      如:Jeans room, my daughter-in-laws friends, my daughters-in-laws friends, childrens books.

      如果名詞已經有了復數詞尾s, 則只需加。如:the teachers books, my parents car.

      時間名詞的所有格在后面加s ,復數加 .如:todays newspaper, five minutes walk.

      當名詞表示無生命的東西時,所有格常由“of”短語構成。

      如:the top of the world, the cover of the book, Chinas capital.

      加 s 或 的名詞所有格可以表示店鋪或某人的家。

      如:the grocers, the tailors, the Smiths .

      ★名詞所有格考試常見部分是

      名詞表示沒有生命的東西時,不能直接在其后加s.

      時間名詞所有格在其后加s,或復數名詞后直接加! ∷、名詞在句子中的作用

      名詞在句子中可以作主語、賓語、賓語補足語、表語、定語,有時可以作狀語。

      名詞、代詞或其他結構作主語時,謂語動詞在人稱和數上必須與主語保持一致。

      1.主語是可數名詞單數時,謂語動詞用單數形式;主語是復數時,謂語動詞用復數形式。

      All roads lead to Rome.(條條大路通羅馬。)

      His brother is an industrial engineer.

      The number of the students attending the party is increasing.

      ★the number of 表示數量,無論后面名詞是復數還是單數,謂語動詞是單數形式。

      Two-thirds of the shop belongs to me.

      ★two-thirds 三分之二

      幾分之幾作主語,謂語是單數形式。

      belong to 屬于某人

      Both of us are studying English.

      ★總結:在名詞作主語時,the number of 謂語動詞單數形式;

      幾分之幾,謂語單數形式;

      both 謂語使用復數形式。

      2、主語是不可數名詞、不定式或動名詞詞組、從句時,謂語動詞用單數形式。

      All the money he received was given to his mother.

      Forgetting the past means betrayal.

      What we are talking now is useless.

      3.主語部分若有as well as, with, together with, like, but, except等短語,謂語動詞的單、復數與短語前面的名詞一致。

      Mary, as well as her two sisters, is a student of this school.

      (as well as her two sisters 作主語Mary的主語補足語,主語 Mary 是單數,所以謂語動詞用復數形式)

      No one except my friends knows anything about it.

      4.表示時間、距離、重量、價值等的復數名詞作主語時,如果當作整體看待,謂語動詞用單數形式。“…+(×)…=…”算式中的謂語動詞也用單數形式。

      Three times two is six.

      Three kilometers is 3,ooo metres. (three kilometers作為整體來看)

      5.Either, neither作主語時,謂語動詞用單數形式。

      Neither of us has been to Italy.

      Has either of them been to Shanghai?

      none代表可數的人或東西時,謂語動詞可以用單數也可以用復數,代表不可數的東西時,謂語動詞用單數形式。

      None of the students have/has seen the film.

      None of the money belongs to me.

      6.主語由either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also連接時,謂語形式由最鄰近的主語決定。

      Not only you but also I am wrong.

      Neither my aunt nor I am going out this afternoon.

      Either you or she is to do the work.

    7.主語中有and,如果表示單一概念,謂語動詞用單數。

      The bread and butter is nice.

      8.主語前有many a, more than one修飾時,謂語動詞用單數形式。

      Many a book has been read by the students.

      ★many a book=many books

      More than one person has been to the Great Wall.

      9.集合名詞作主語,當作整體看待時,謂語動詞用單數形式,當作每個獨立的個體看待時,謂語動詞用復數。

      The committee meets once a year. (作為整體)

      The committee are having a meeting now. (作為獨立個體)

      People, police作主語時,謂語動詞用復數形式。

      The police have come to arrest him.

      名詞部分考試重點

      1、可數名詞與不可數名詞里,哪幾個詞是不可數名詞。

      2、可數名詞復數形式重點掌握不規則形式,單、復數相同的名詞。

      3、名詞所有格重點掌握時間名詞所有格在其后加s,復數加。

      4、名詞在句中的作用,重點掌握剛才的9點。

      考點測試

      1.Ten days ______ long enough for Mr. Carter to finish his design. He doesnt need any more.

      A. is B. has been C. was D. had been

      ten days 作為一個整體看待,謂語用單數形式。(注意時態)

      答案 A

      2. Now, many people use the word Ms instead of Miss or Mrs, for example, before the names of ______ in business letters.

      A. woman manager B. women manager C. woman managers D. women managers

      names 是復數形式,其后的名詞肯定是復數。

      兩個名詞變為復數,兩個都要變。

      答案 D

      3. The number of students who failed the chemistry examination _____ to fifteen.

      A. have increased B. has increased C. is increased D. are increasing

      the number of 謂語動詞用單數。

      答案 B

      4. Neither John nor his father _______ able to wake up early enough to catch the morning train.

      A. was B. were C. would be D. have been

      neither……nor謂語動詞跟相鄰的主語一致。

      答案 A

      5. The room is eight _______ long.

      A. foot B. foots C. feet D. feets

      foot 英尺,復數形式 feet

      答案 C

      6. When autumn comes, the ______ of trees begin to fall.

      A. leafs B. leafes C. leaves D. leaf

      leaf 的復數形式 leaves

      答案 C

      7. The flood has done _____ to this area.

      A. damages B. many damages C. much damage D. damaging

      8. Not only the students but also their teacher ______ at the meeting.

      A. was present B. were present C. have been presented D. has been presented

      not only…… but also 謂語動詞與相鄰名詞一致。

      present 呈現,介紹

      答案 A

     9. One of the things she wrote about ______ life on a small farm at the beginning of the century.

      A. is B. was C. are D. were

      one of 謂語用單數。

      答案 B

      10. Only about one out of twelve of the young men and women of this country _____ college education.

      A. receive B. receives C. have received D. have been received

      one out of 謂語用單數形式。

      答案 B

      11. Never before ______ so many people been engaged in producing goods just for the comfort of man.

      A. has B. have C. will D. would

      never before開頭,句子倒裝。

      主語so many people為復數。

      engage in doing sth. 忙于做某事。

      答案 B

      12. At the bus stop _______ a soldier and two young people on their way to North Carolina.

      A. were B. was C. is D. sits and waits

      主語 a soldier and two young people為復數

      答案 A

      13. There ______ the last piece of cake and the last spoonful of ice cream.

      A. goes B. go C. gone D. was gone

      主語 the last piece of cake and the last spoonful of ice cream復數

      答案 B

      14. Mr. Brown, and not I , ________ chosen to be the representative of the class.

      A. is B. am C. are D. have been

      主語 Mr.Brown

      答案 A

      15. The teacher, as well as a number of students, _______ to attend the party.

      A. ask B. asks C. was asked D. were asked

      謂語動詞與as well as前面的名詞一致。

      答案 C

      16. The hostess together with the guests of honor ________ comfortably in the living room.

      A. was seated B. seated C. were seated D. were seating

      謂語與 together with 前的名詞一致

      be seated 就坐

      Please be seated ladies and gentlmen.

      Seat the boy next to his brother.

      答案 A

      17. The father, rather than the brothers, _______ responsible for the accident.

      A. is B. are C. have been D. has

      主語 the father ,單數

      be responsible for 對……負責

      答案 A

      18. Either Carol or Grace ______ to the concert, but one of them has to stay home.

      A. is coming B. are coming C. will coming D. have come

      either……or 謂語動詞與臨近主語一致。

      答案 A

      19. The total amount of money ______ 100 dollars.

      A. is B. are C. has D. have

      money 不可數名詞,謂語動詞單數。

      答案 A

    20. Great quantities of fish _____ on high seas.

      A. is caught B. are caught C. catch D. is catching

      quantities 復數形式

      答案 B

      21. Either of the young ladies _____ perfectly qualified to teach Greek and Latin.

      A. is B. are C. has D. have

      either打頭,謂語動詞單數。

      答案 A

      22. Having studied your report carefully, I am convinced that neither of your solutions _____ correct.

      A. are B. is C. had D. will

      neither 兩者都不,謂語動詞單數。

      答案 B

      23. In some countries each of the citizens ______ to decide government policies.

      A. helps B. help C. are helped D. is helped

      each 每一個,謂語動詞單數。

      答案 A

      24. The nurse added_____ to the medcine to make the ease for the child to take.

      A. some sugar B. some sugars C. a sugar D. sugars

      suger 不可數名詞

      答案 A

      take medcine 吃藥

      25. “I like your furniture very much.”

      “Thank you. We bought ____ in Beijing.”

      A. the most of them B. the most of it C. most of them D. most of it

      furniture 不可數名詞

      答案 D

      26. Jim was upset last night because he had to do too______.

      A. many homework B. a few homeworks C. few homeworks D. much homework

      homework 不可數名詞

      答案 D

      27. Im going away for a ______.

      A. holiday of a week B. week holiday C. holiday week D. weeks holiday

      表示時間的名詞所有格可以在其后加s .

      答案 D


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